Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies



The Company


Polar Power, Inc. was incorporated in 1979 in the State of Washington as Polar Products Inc., and in 1991 reincorporated in the State of California under the name Polar Power, Inc. In December 2016, Polar Power, Inc. reincorporated in the State of Delaware (the “Company”). The Company designs, manufactures and sells direct current, or DC, power systems to supply reliable and low-cost energy to off-grid, bad-grid and backup power applications. The Company’s products integrate DC generator and proprietary automated controls, lithium batteries and solar systems to provide low operating cost and lower emissions alternative power needs in telecommunications, defense, automotive and industrial markets.




The Company’s financial statements have been prepared on the going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company incurred a net loss of $10,871 and used cash in operating activities of $6,547. At December 31, 2020, the Company had cash on hand of $1,646 and working capital of $10,123. Subsequent to December 31, 2020, the Company sold an aggregate of 750,000 shares of its common stock for net proceeds of approximately $12,500 in an offering completed in January 2021. In addition, in January 2021, the Company issued an aggregate of 225,878 shares of common stock upon the exercise of warrants and received cash proceeds of $707. Notwithstanding the net loss for 2020, management believes that its current cash balance, plus net proceeds from issuance of common stock and exercise of warrants in January 2021, is sufficient to fund operations for at least one year from the date the Company’s 2020 financial statements are issued.


The Company expects to continue to incur net losses and negative operating cash flows in the near-term. The Company may seek to raise additional debt and/or equity capital to fund future operations. No assurance can be given that any future financing will be available or, if available, that it will be on terms that are satisfactory to the Company. Even if the Company is able to obtain additional financing, it may contain undue restrictions on its operations, in the case of debt financing or cause substantial dilution for its stockholders, in case or equity financing. Management continues to review operations in order to identify additional strategies designed to generate cash flow, improve the Company’s financial position, and enable the timely discharge of the Company’s obligations. If management is unable to identify sources of additional cash flow in the short term, it may be required to further reduce or limit operations.




The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties of the COVID-19 pandemic that could adversely impact its business, including its sales, raw materials supply chain, liquidity and access to capital markets and business development activities. The Company has implemented additional health and safety precautions and protocols in response to the pandemic and government guidelines. During 2020, sales to the Company’s U.S. telecommunications customers, which represented 95% of the Company’s net sales for 2020, decreased 63% from 2019 as its customers postponed shipments and orders to prioritize expansion of 5G and cell site edge computing networks and as a result of the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the business of the Company’s customers. As a result of the Company’s declining revenues during the COVID-19 pandemic, management implemented cost reduction programs to reduce overhead and lower operating expenses, while still keeping the business operational and ready to expand when needed. During 2020, the Company’s supply chain was not placed in jeopardy due to the COVID-19 outbreak.


The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has had and will continue to have on the Company’s business is highly uncertain and difficult to predict and quantify. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will directly or indirectly impact the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition, will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain, including as a result of new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain or treat it, as well as the economic impact on local, regional, national and international markets.




The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, management reviews its estimates and if deemed appropriate, those estimates are adjusted. Significant estimates include those related to assumptions used in determining reserves for uncollectible receivables, assumptions used in valuing inventories at net realizable value, impairment analysis of long term assets, estimates of useful lives of property and equipment, assumptions used in valuing stock-based compensation, the valuation allowance for deferred tax assets, accruals for product warranties, accruals for potential liabilities, and assumptions used in the determination of the Company’s liquidity. Actual results may differ from those estimates.


Revenue Recognition


The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). The underlying principle of ASC 606 is to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at the amount expected to be collected. ASC 606 creates a five-step model that requires entities to exercise judgment when considering the terms of contract(s), which includes (1) identifying the contract(s) or agreement(s) with a customer, (2) identifying our performance obligations in the contract or agreement, (3) determining the transaction price, (4) allocating the transaction price to the separate performance obligations, and (5) recognizing revenue as each performance obligation is satisfied. Under ASC 606, revenue is recognized when performance obligations under the terms of a contract are satisfied, which occurs for us upon shipment or delivery of products or services to our customers based on written sales terms, which is also when control is transferred. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring the products or services to a customer.


Substantially all of the Company’s revenue is derived from product sales. Product revenue is recognized when performance obligations under the terms of a contract are satisfied, which occurs for the Company upon shipment or delivery of products or services to its customers based on written sales terms, which is also when control is transferred. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring the products or services to a customer. The Company determines whether delivery has occurred based on when title transfers and the risks and rewards of ownership have transferred to the customer, which usually occurs when the Company places the product with the customer’s carrier or deliver the product to a customer’s location. The Company regularly reviews its customers’ financial positions to ensure that collectability is reasonably assured.


The Company also recognizes revenues from engineering services, technical support, and sale of accessories that support the Company’s DC power systems. Revenue is recognized when transfer of control to the customer has been made and the Company’s performance obligation has been fulfilled. The Company’s revenue from engineering services, technical support services, and product accessories are clearly defined in each transaction with its customers and have not been significant to date.


The Company also recognizes revenues from the rental of equipment. The Company’s rental revenues have not been significant to date and have accounted for less than one percent of total revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. The Company’s rental contracts are fixed price contracts for fixed durations of time and include freight and delivery charges and are recognized on a straight-line basis over the rental period.


Disaggregation of Net Sales


The following table shows the Company’s disaggregated net sales by product type:


    Years Ended December 31,  
    2020     2019  
DC power systems   $ 8,659     $ 24,177  
Engineering & Tech Support Services     226       281  
Accessories     146       343  
Total net sales   $ 9,031     $ 24,801  


The following table shows the Company’s disaggregated net sales by customer type:


    Years Ended December 31,  
    2020     2019  
Telecom   $ 8,640     $ 23,753  
Government/Military     120       589  
Marine     5       83  
Other (backup DC power to various industries)     266       376  
Total net sales   $ 9,031     $ 24,801  


For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, international sales totaled $1,522 and $230, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2020, over 88% of our international sales were made to one customer in Japan. There were no sales made to this customer during 2019.


Product Warranties


The Company provides limited warranties for parts and labor at no cost to its customers within a specified time period after the sale. Our standard warranty on new products is two years from the date of delivery to the customer. We offer a limited extended warranty of up to five years on our certified DC power systems based on application and usage. The Company’s warranties are of an assurance-type and come standard with all Company products to cover repair or replacement should product not perform as expected. Provisions for estimated expenses related to product warranties are made at the time products are sold. These estimates are established using historical information about the nature, frequency and average cost of warranty claim settlements as well as product manufacturing and recovery from suppliers. Management actively studies trends of warranty claims and takes action to improve product quality and minimize warranty costs. The Company estimates the actual historical warranty claims coupled with an analysis of unfulfilled claims to record a liability for specific warranty purposes. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had accrued a liability for warranty reserve of $600 and $375, respectively, which are included in other accrued liabilities in the accompanying balance sheets. Management believes that the warranty accrual is appropriate; however, actual claims incurred could differ from original estimates, requiring adjustments to the accrual.


The following is a tabular reconciliation of the product warranty liability, excluding the deferred revenue related to the Company’s warranty coverage:


    Years End December 31,  
    2020     2019  
Changes in estimates for warranties            
Balance at beginning of the period   $ 375     $ 175  
Payments     (634 )     (530 )
Provision for warranties     859       730  
Balance at end of the period   $ 600     $ 375  


Shipping Costs


Amounts billed to a customer in a sales transaction related to shipping and handling are reported as revenue. Costs incurred by the Company for shipping and handling are considered fulfillment costs and reported as cost of sales.


Cash and cash equivalents


The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. The carrying amounts reported in the Balance Sheets for cash and cash equivalents are valued at cost, which approximates their fair value.


Accounts Receivable


Trade receivables are recorded at net realizable value consisting of the carrying amount less an allowance for uncollectible accounts, as needed. The Company uses the allowance method to account for uncollectible trade receivable balances. Under the allowance method, if needed, an estimate of uncollectible customer balances is made based upon specific account balances that are considered uncollectible. Factors used to establish an allowance include the credit quality and payment history of the customer. The Company did not deem it necessary to provide an allowance for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.




Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost determined on a first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) basis. The Company records adjustments to its inventory based on an estimated forecast of the inventory demand, taking into consideration, among others, inventory turnover, inventory quantities on hand, unfilled customer order quantities, forecasted demand, current prices, competitive pricing, and trends and performance of similar products. If the estimated net realizable value is determined to be less than the recorded cost of the inventory, the difference is recognized as a loss in the period in which it occurs. Once inventory has been written down, it creates a new cost basis for inventory that may not subsequently written up. At December 31, 2020, as a result of the deterioration of the forecasted marketability of certain of the Company’s inventory, management determined that the inventory’s revenue-generating ability was diminished, and the net realizable value of this inventory had fallen below its historical carrying cost. Accordingly, for the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recorded a write down of inventory of $3,400, which is included in cost of goods sold. At December 31, 2020, the balance of inventory reflects its new cost basis after the write down. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company recorded a write down of inventory of $270, which is included in cost of goods sold. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, inventory has been reduced by cumulative write-downs totaling $4,000 and $600, respectively.


As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, inventories consisted of the following:


    Years Ended December 31,  
    2020     2019  
Raw materials   $ 5,527     $ 8,051  
Finished goods     3,567       5,861  
Inventories   $ 9,094     $ 13,912  


Property and Equipment


Property and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Additions, improvements, and major renewals or replacements that substantially extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized. Repairs and maintenance expenditures are expensed as incurred. Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life. Estimated useful lives of the principal classes of assets are as follows:


    Estimated life
Production tooling, jigs, fixtures   3-5 years
Shop equipment and machinery   5 years
Vehicles   3-5 years
Leasehold improvements   Shorter of the lease term or estimated useful life
Office equipment   5 years
Software   5 years


Management regularly reviews property, equipment and other long-lived assets for possible impairment. This review occurs annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. Based upon management’s annual assessment, there were no indicators of impairment of the Company’s property and equipment and other long-lived assets as of December 31, 2020 or December 31, 2019.




The Company accounts for its leases in accordance with the guidance of ASC 842, Leases. The Company determines whether a contract is, or contains, a lease at inception. Right-of-use assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset during the lease term, and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are recognized at lease commencement based upon the estimated present value of unpaid lease payments over the lease term. The Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at lease commencement in determining the present value of unpaid lease payments The Company adopted ASC 842 on January 1, 2019. There was no cumulative-effect adjustment to accumulated deficit.


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company periodically issues stock-based compensation to officers, directors, and consultants for services rendered. Such issuances vest and expire according to terms established at the issuance date.


Stock-based payments to employees, directors, and for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees, which include grants of employee stock options, are recognized in the financial statements based on their grant date fair values in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation. Stock option grants, which are generally time vested, are measured at the grant date fair value and depending on the conditions associated with the vesting of the award, compensation cost is recognized on a straight-line or graded basis over the vesting period. The fair value of stock options granted is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which uses certain assumptions related to risk-free interest rates, expected volatility, expected life, and future dividends. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option pricing model could materially affect compensation expense recorded in future periods.


Income Taxes


The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences, and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized before the Company is able to realize their benefits, or that future deductibility is uncertain.


Tax benefits from an uncertain tax position are recognized only if it more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities based on technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.


Research and Development Costs


Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consist primarily of salaries and other expenses relating to the design, development, and testing of the Company’s products. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, research and development expenditures totaled $1,723 and $2,276, respectively.


Net Loss Per Share


Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the net income applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding plus the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if all dilutive potential common shares had been issued using the treasury stock method. Dilutive potential common shares include shares from unexercised warrants and options. Potential common share equivalents have been excluded where their inclusion would be anti-dilutive. The Company’s basic and diluted net loss per share is the same for all periods presented because all shares issuable upon exercise of warrants and options are anti-dilutive.


The following potentially dilutive shares were excluded from the shares used to calculate diluted earnings per share as their inclusion would be anti-dilutive:


    December 31,  
    2020     2019  
Options     140,000       140,000  
Warrants     370,000       120,000  
Total     510,000       260,000  


Financial Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value


Accounting standards require certain assets and liabilities be reported at fair value in the financial statements and provide a framework for establishing that fair value. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received upon sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining fair value, the Company considers the principal or most advantageous market in which it transacts, and considers assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability. The framework for determining fair value is based on a hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs and valuation techniques used to measure fair value:


  Level 1 Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.


  Level 2 Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets, that is observable either directly or indirectly.


  Level 3 Unobservable inputs based on the Company’s assumptions.


The carrying amounts of financial assets and liabilities, such as cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable, approximate their fair values because of the short-term nature of these instruments. The carrying values of notes payable approximate their fair values due to the fact that the interest rates on these obligations are based on prevailing market interest rates.




The Company operates in one segment for the manufacture and distribution of its products. In accordance with the “Segment Reporting” Topic of the ASC, the Company’s chief operating decision maker has been identified as the Chief Executive Officer and President, who reviews operating results to make decisions about allocating resources and assessing performance for the entire Company. Existing guidance, which is based on a management approach to segment reporting, establishes requirements to report selected segment information quarterly and to report annually entity-wide disclosures about products and services, major customers, and the countries in which the entity holds material assets and reports revenue. All material operating units qualify for aggregation under “Segment Reporting” due to their similar customer base and similarities in: economic characteristics; nature of products and services; and procurement, manufacturing and distribution processes. Since the Company operates in one segment, all financial information required by “Segment Reporting” can be found in the accompanying financial statements.




Cash. The Company maintains cash balances at four banks, with the majority held at one bank located in the U.S. At times, the amount on deposit exceeds the federally insured limits. Management believes that the financial institutions that hold the Company’s cash are financially sound and, accordingly, minimal credit risk exists.


Cash denominated in Australian Dollar with a U.S. Dollar equivalent of $10 and $16 at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, was held in an account at a financial institution located in Australia. Cash denominated in Romanian Leu with a U.S. Dollar equivalent of $28 and $4 at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, was held in an account at a financial institution located in Romania.


Revenues. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 52%, 15%, and 14% of revenue were generated from the company’s three largest customers, which were customers from the telecommunications industry. In 2019, 68%, 17%, and 6% of revenue were generated from the Company’s three largest customers, all are customers from the telecommunications industry. In 2020 and 2019, sales to telecommunications customers accounted for 96% and 96% of total revenue, respectively. In 2020 and 2019, sales to international customers accounted for 17% and 1%, of total revenue, respectively.


Accounts receivable. At December 31, 2020, 87% of the Company’s accounts receivable was from one of the Company’s major customer. At December 31, 2019, 70% and 20% represented the two largest accounts receivable balances from the Company’s customers. There was no other customer that accounted for more than 10% of the Company’s accounts receivable as of the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.


Accounts payable. On December 31, 2020, the three largest accounts payable accounts to the Company’s vendors represented 10%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. On December 31, 2019, the three largest accounts payable accounts to the Company’s largest vendors represented 11%, 10%, and 10%, respectively.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Credit Losses - Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASC 326”). The standard significantly changes how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets, including accounts and notes receivables. The standard will replace today’s “incurred loss” approach with an “expected loss” model, under which companies will recognize allowances based on expected rather than incurred losses. Entities will apply the standard’s provisions as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. As a smaller reporting company, ASU 2016-13 will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2023, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.


The Company’s management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective, authoritative guidance, if currently adopted, would have a material impact on the Company’s financial statement presentation or disclosures.